Swapping 3S-GTE into Front-Wheel-Drive Celica
The following information has been compiled by Peter Silvoy. He has actually done the modification described below and is a proud owner of a FWD Celica equipped with a 3S-GTE engine. The engine itself was delivered by JEMCO, which also was involved in the actual engine swap. Please note that Peter takes no responsibility for any damage caused to you or your property as a result of carrying out this modification. Done incorrectly, severe and expensive damages can occur. Please use these directions as general guidelines and make sure either you or your mechanic has the technical knowledge needed.
This is a basic overview of my experience with doing this swap. To my knowledge, there are VERY few of these performed, most of them done by TOYSPORT who neglected to offer any help, so I take ALL the credit in making it work, as far as fabrication and installation. I credit ROB SMITH at RPS for helping me with the engine management system (which made it all work!), and all his time he lent to me in the process. Rob really knows what he is talking about, so if you want to buy parts and need info, call him to find out if he carries them. And last but not least JONNIE MORRIS at JEMCO for supplying the motor and miscellaneous parts needed to complete my ultimate street ride. I purchased the motor from JEMCO last January, but didn't start work until September. Jonnie helped me find random parts and answered some questions when I had them.
In order to gain some serious power for my 1990 Celica GT featuring the 2.2l 5S-FE engine, I decided to swap in the 3S-GTE engine from a Celica All-Trac. Both engines are almost identical when referring to the block. They have the same dimensions and bolt patterns. They are both derived from the same engine family. The 3S-GTE is a 2.0L turbo, and the 5S-FE a 2.2L NA engine. The 3S-GTE will bolt to the 5S-FE transmission with no problem. The only thing different is the transmission shaft. To make this work you must use the clutch DISC from the 5S-FE transmission, and the PRESSURE PLATE (and flywheel) from the 3S-GTE.
All engine and transmission mounts are identical and the accessories (A/C pump, power steering, and alternator) will work with no mods. I do recommend using the ones that exist on the 3S-GTE if they came attached. This keeps you from changing belts and causing problems. But, it is possible to use the parts from your 5S-FE by disconnecting them from the motor prior to removal, and leaving the hoses attached. The advantage of this is that you do not need to replace fluids or flush out systems due to air entering them.
The installer can make this decision. The rear heater hoses from the 5sfe will work with the 3sgte. The upper radiator hose will also work with some modification (will discuss further). You must use the lower radiator hose from the 3sgte, as it is longer at the top. For the turbo to cool, it uses both water and oil. The oil lines are already attached, but the water line (in the All-Trac) connects to the radiator. The radiator in the 5sfe has no connection for the turbo water line. This is where you must fabricate a fitting. A piece of pipe that fits in the upper radiator hose must be cut to a length of about 3-4 inches. Obtain a nipple fitting that matches the turbo outlet and drill and tap it into the pipe (or drill and weld). Then cut the upper radiator hose a few inches from the radiator, and remove a couple inches. Insert the pipe with fitting into the hose to connect it and clamp ends. Use a hose (that can withstand the heat) to connect the turbo water line to the new fitting in the radiator hose.Depending on whether the engine is a ST165 or ST185 model determines the intercooler specs. The older models (88-89) have water-air intercoolers, while the newer ones use air-air units. Also, other international models may have liquid intercoolers on newer models (the Carlos Sainz model). If using the newer air-air model, a hood from a turbo Celica (or custom) must be obtained and installed to properly cool the intercooler. But for the water units, and intercooler water pump and radiator must be installed. If the motor did not come with the pump, I would recommend finding one from a Celica, or buy a high volume electric water pump. The fittings are 5/8" for the hose from the intercooler to the pump. A universal fluid cooler can be used to cool the water. Install the cooler in front of the radiator, or if possible, in front of the a/c radiator. Run the hose out of the pump, then into the radiator, then to the Intercooler. Lastly connect a hose from the intercooler back to the pump input.BlankLine
A TIP: Replace any hoses and gaskets that appear to be old and worn out. It is VERY difficult to work on them while the engine is in the car; it is very cramped after everything is installed. If a factory part is not available, consult a qualified mechanic to find out what can be substituted for that part. USE FACTORY PARTS WHENEVER POSSIBLE. The Toyota Engine Management (ECU) is very well designed, and if you do not plan on major mods, keep it to control the motor. A few things can be done to the ECU to let boost be increased past factory fuel-cut-off levels. You will need everything that connects to the computer, or else it won't work properly.
OTHER OPTIONS (what I did):
Another way to go about engine control Is an aftermarket ECU (i.e. ACCEL DFI, Electromotive Tec-II, Haltec, etc.). After too many questions about getting my factory computer to work, I called Rob Smith at RPS performance products. Rob has been featured in almost every import performance magazine (S.C.C., Turbo, Super Street, etc.) and is well known for his ability to tune imports. He programmed my DFI with his base program that he uses for MR-2's and Celica's (for the 3S-GTE). With a laptop, I can fine-tune the fuel maps, and properly set my ignition timing. A MSD 6AL (and aftermartket coil) is required in use with the DFI unit. It is very easy to install per instructions. With this setup, I can get maximum performance from the engine in current form, and push it to the limits in the future. The DFI is very simple to install, except for the distributor modification. Rob can perform this task if necessary, or have it done by a machinist. The Toyota distributor has 24 teeth. You must remove all but 4 that oppose each other (like an +). The magnetic pickup must be set up correctly in this process. I suggest contacting Rob and having him do it for a small fee, to make sure it's done right (or contact me for info).I have also a few Blitz products. Namely a SSBC, a Dual Turbo Timer, and Super Sound BOV. I keep my boost at 9 psi on the street (low) and 13 psi for track (high), for now...